Whenever you connect to a WiFi network and enter the password to connect to that network, a WLAN profile of that WiFi network is made. That profile is stored inside the computer along with the other required details of the WiFi profile.
Instead of using a GUI to find the individual passwords, we can also look for the WiFi password of that particular WiFi network using cmd. These steps work even when totally offline or not connected to the particular WiFi.
1. Open command prompt and run it as administrator.
2. View all profiles stored on computer by typing: netsh wlan show profile (this command will list all WiFi profiles connected to).
Network names intentionally removed
3. To see the password for a network type the following: netsh wlan show profile [SSID] key=clear
Under Security Settings, in the key content entry, you will see the password of the specified network.
Reference: Shekhar, Amar. “How To Find Wi-Fi Password Using CMD Of All Connected Networks”. fossBytes. N.p., 2016. Web. 13 Oct. 2016.
By 2018, global mobile data traffic will reach 15.9 exabytes per month or 190 exabytes annually, increasing nearly 11-fold from 2013 — 2018. 190 exabytes is equivalent to four trillion video clips or 42 trillion images!
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Serpent is an open source symmetric key block cipher that encrypts a 128 bit block of plaintext using a 256 bit key. The algorithm was developed in 1998 by 3 researches, Ross Anderson, Lars Knudsen and Eli Biham. It was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest, where it came second to Rijndael. Serpent and Rijndael are somewhat similar; the main difference is that Rijndael is faster (having fewer rounds) but Serpent is more secure.
Serpent uses 32 rounds or 32 reiterations of the same algorithm using mathematical permutations and substitutions. The encrypting and decrypting phase have the same level of complexity. The decryption operations are exactly the inverted transformations used to encrypt the message but in opposite order. Different mathematical substitutions “S-boxes” are used with a 4 bit entrance and a 4 bit exit. Every encryption phase uses an S-box that work collaterally for the 32 times.
Serpent Encryption Process
Serpent Decryption Process
Serpent was designed to provide users with the highest practical level of assurance that no shortcut attack will be found. To achieve this, the designers limited themselves to well understood mechanisms, so that they could rely on the existing experience of block cipher cryptanalysis. Also, twice as many rounds as are sufficient to block all currently known shortcut attacks are used. This is believed to be prudent practice for a cipher that might have a service life of a century or more.
With the advent of the digital convergence, internet traffic is rapidly expanding and also becoming more varied and complex. Traditional IP packet routers are the backbone of the Internet and are, ironically, the problem with voice and video transmission. Unlike static web pages and email that can handle packet loss and some network problems, voice and video deteriorate under transmission delays as short as a few milliseconds. Current routers cannot guarantee that video will stream smoothly to a user’s computer because they treat video packets as loose data entities instead of flows. In order to solve this problem, routers need redesign to incorporate flow management technology thereby increasing the reliability of data transmission.
Complete Paper: The Rebirth of the Router